lundi 31 mars 2008

Insuportable discrimination

La patate chaude de la fosse commune découverte à Alcala de Henares ne refroidit pas. En dépit des efforts du gouvernement pour en cacher l'invention par des ouvriers creusant des fondations, la nouvelle de sa découverte continue de faire des vagues en Espagne. L'enquête préliminaire diligentée à la requête d'un magistrat militaire cherche à déterminer ses dimensions. Des indices laissent supposer qu'elle ferait environ 150 m de long, ce qui augure d'un nombre d'assassinés dépassant la centaine.

La réaction de la gauche est très révélatrice de son état de déni permanent de la réalité. Le journal gouvernemental El Pais a cherché par tous les moyens à rejeter la responsabilité des morts sur le camp nationaliste dans une vaine tentative pour dédouaner les tueurs du Front populaire. Un de ses journalistes a publié une étude dans laquelle il affirme que le lieu de la découverte a servi de camp de concentration durant les années 1940. Les historiens n'ont pas tardé à prouver que les affirmations du quotidien socialiste sont incompatibles avec les faits tels qu'on en retrouve la trace dans les archives.

Les documents révèlent que ce camp a servi de centre de rétention et de triage pour les frontpopulistes entre avril et novembre 1939, quand il fallait démobiliser les dizaines de milliers de prisonniers du front de Madrid. Rien ne permet de supposer que des exécutions sommaires ont eu lieu durant ces mois.

Bien au contraire. Il est largement démontré que le gouvernement espagnol a conduit une répression à la fois dure, exhaustive et formaliste, s'appuyant sur une procédure judiciaire simplifiée pour juger les survivants du Front populaire. Les vainqueurs n'avaient pas besoin de fosses communes.

Autre fait révélateur. Les dirigeants de l'organisation partisane « Association pour la récupération de la mémoire historique » ont déclaré qu'ils n'aideront pas les familles des morts retrouvés dans la fosse car ils ne s'intéressent qu'aux victimes des nationalistes.

De même, le gouvernement catalan brille par son absence. Alors que les restes d'une personnalité catalane de premier plan, Andreu Nin, pourraient se trouver dans cette fosse, le conseiller Joan Saura en charge de ces questions reste muet comme une carpe et sa créature, le Memorial Democratic est aux abonnés absents.

Le gouvernement catalan et la bourgeoise reconvertie dans l'indépendantisme sont coutumiers de la mémoire sélective. Comme le remarque le journaliste Pedro Fernandez Barbadillo, une bonne partie des personnalités catalanes auxquelles ont rend hommage en ce début de XXIe siècle ont par la force des choses un passé franquiste. Comme ce passé est incompatible avec l'image que cette bourgeoise veut donner d'elle-même aujourd'hui, elle en efface les traces.

Un exemple caricatural a été offert sur un plateau par le quotidien gouvernemental catalan la Vanguardia española dans l'hommage qu'il a rendu à Martín de Riquer, père du propriétaire du quotidien et actuel duc de Godó. Les défenseurs de la probité journalistique ont tout simplement omis de sa biographie que Martín de Riquer a fait la guerre comme volontaire aux côtés de Franco et qu'il a organisé le défilé des troupes victorieuses dans les rues de la capitale catalane. Ensuite, il a dirigé la propagande de la Falange avant de faire carrière dans l'université et entrer deux fois au parlement sur nomination directe par Franco.

A l'inverse, ses descendants ont changé d'allégeances et font carrière dans l'indépendantisme. Un de ses fils, Borja, est même l'un des promoteurs de la mémoire historique à la sauce rose. Pourquoi n'a-t-il pas commencé par son propre papa ?

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