mardi 8 juin 2010

Les filles sont-elles meilleures que les garçons en maths ?

Annoncer que les filles sont meilleures que les garçons n'entraînera aucune conséquence négatives pour celui qui énoncera cette hypothèse.

En revanche, avancer la thèse que les garçons seraient meilleurs que les filles en mathématiques et alors les ligues de vertu entreraient en action.

Voici quelques années, le malheureux Lawrence H. Summers alors président de Harvard avait cloué au pilori pour quelques phrases qu'il avait ptoncées sur l'absence relative des femmes aux deux extrémités de la courbe de répartition des aptitudes à la mathématique.

Ces propos avaient été déformés par les féministes qui en avaient conclu que selon Lawrence H. Summers les femmes ne sont pas douées pour les maths.

Cet article de Jodi Hilton pour le New York Times met en lumière les contradictions entre la nouvelle loi pour lutter contre les discriminations dont pourraient souffrir les femmes dans les sciences avec justement la science tout court.

Le journaliste révèle que les résultats encourageants que certaines enquêtes révèlent sur les aptitudes des femmes aux sciences dures concernent la moyenne des femmes, soit le centre de la courbe de répartition.

En revanche, le 1 pour 10 000, soit la crème de la crème des aptitudes aux sciences est encore majoritairement masculin.

Or les mathématiciens de haut vol qui forment l'avant-garde scientifique d'un pays, qui assurent l'enseignement dans les universités ou les instituts spécialisés se recrutent forcément par les meilleurs, soit un milieu majoritairement masculin.

En revanche, pour être professeur de mathématiques au collège ou au lycée, les femmes ont toutes leurs chances car elles dominent le terrain.

Daring to Discuss Women in Science

The House of Representatives has passed what I like to think of as Larry’s Law. The official title of this legislation is “Fulfilling the potential of women in academic science and engineering,” but nothing did more to empower its advocates than the controversy over a speech by Lawrence H. Summers when he was president of Harvard.

This proposed law, if passed by the Senate, would require the White House science adviser to oversee regular “workshops to enhance gender equity.” At the workshops, to be attended by researchers who receive federal money and by the heads of science and engineering departments at universities, participants would be given before-and-after “attitudinal surveys” and would take part in “interactive discussions or other activities that increase the awareness of the existence of gender bias.”

I’m all in favor of women fulfilling their potential in science, but I feel compelled, at the risk of being shipped off to one of these workshops, to ask a couple of questions:

1) Would it be safe during the “interactive discussions” for someone to mention the new evidence supporting Dr. Summers’s controversial hypothesis about differences in the sexes’ aptitude for math and science?

2) How could these workshops reconcile the “existence of gender bias” with careful studies that show that female scientists fare as well as, if not better than, their male counterparts in receiving academic promotions and research grants?

Each of these questions is complicated enough to warrant a column, so I’ll take them one at a time, starting this week with the issue of sex differences.

When Dr. Summers raised the issue to fellow economists and other researchers at a conference in 2005, his hypothesis was caricatured in the press as a revival of the old notion that “girls can’t do math.” But Dr. Summers said no such thing. He acknowledged that there were many talented female scientists and discussed ways to eliminate the social barriers they faced.

Yet even if all these social factors were eliminated, he hypothesized, the science faculty composition at an elite school like Harvard might still be skewed by a biological factor: the greater variability observed among men in intelligence test scores and various traits. Men and women might, on average, have equal mathematical ability, but there could still be disproportionately more men with very low or very high scores.

These extremes often don’t matter much because relatively few people are involved, leaving the bulk of men and women clustered around the middle. But a tenured physicist at a leading university, Dr. Summers suggested, might well need skills and traits found in only one person in 10,000: the top 0.01 percent of the population, a tiny group that would presumably include more men because it’s at the extreme right tail of the distribution curve.

“I would like nothing better than to be proved wrong,” Dr. Summers told the economists, expressing the hope that gender imbalances could be rectified simply by eliminating social barriers. But he added, “My guess is that there are some very deep forces here that are going to be with us for a long time.”

Dr. Summers was pilloried for even suggesting the idea, and the critics took up his challenge to refute the hypothesis. Some have claimed he was proved wrong by recent reports of girls closing the gender gap on math scores in the United States and other countries. But even if those reports (which have been disputed) are accurate, they involve closing the gap only for average math scores — not for the extreme scores that Dr. Summers was discussing.

Some scientists and advocates for gender equity have argued that the remaining gender gap in extreme scores is rapidly shrinking and will disappear. It was called “largely an artifact of changeable sociocultural factors” last year by two researchers at the University of Wisconsin, Janet S. Hyde and Janet E. Mertz. They noted evidence of the gap narrowing and concluded, “Thus, there is every reason to believe that it will continue to narrow in the future.”

But some of the evidence for the disappearing gender gap involved standardized tests that aren’t sufficiently difficult to make fine distinctions among the brighter students. These tests, like the annual ones required in American public schools, are limited by what’s called the ceiling effect: If you’re measuring people in a room with a six-foot ceiling, you can’t distinguish among the ones taller than six feet.

Now a team of psychologists at Duke University has looked at the results of tests with more headroom. In an article in a forthcoming issue of the journal Intelligence, they analyze the test scores of students in the United States who took college admissions tests while they were still in the seventh grade. As part of an annual talent search since 1981, the SAT and ACT tests have been given to more than 1.6 million gifted seventh graders, with roughly equal numbers of boys and girls participating.

The Duke researchers — Jonathan Wai, Megan Cacchio, Martha Putallaz and Matthew C. Makel — focused on the extreme right tail of the distribution curve: people ranking in the top 0.01 percent of the general population, which for a seventh grader means scoring above 700 on the SAT math test. In the early 1980s, there were 13 boys for every girl in that group, but by 1991 the gender gap had narrowed to four to one, presumably because of sociocultural factors like encouragement and instruction in math offered to girls.

Since then, however, the math gender gap hasn’t narrowed, despite the continuing programs to encourage girls. The Duke researchers report that there are still four boys for every girl at the extreme right tail of the scores for the SAT math test. The boy-girl ratio has also remained fairly constant, at about three to one, at the right tail of the ACT tests of both math and science reasoning. Among the 19 students who got a perfect score on the ACT science test in the past two decades, 18 were boys.

Meanwhile, the seventh-grade girls outnumbered the boys at the right tail of tests measuring verbal reasoning and writing ability. The Duke researchers report in Intelligence, “Our data clearly show that there are sex differences in cognitive abilities in the extreme right tail, with some favoring males and some favoring females.”

The researchers say it’s impossible to predict how long these math and science gender gaps will last. But given the gaps’ stability for two decades, the researchers conclude, “Thus, sex differences in abilities in the extreme right tail should not be dismissed as no longer part of the explanation for the dearth of women in math-intensive fields of science.”

Other studies have shown that these differences in extreme test scores correlate with later achievements in science and academia. Even when you consider only members of an elite group like the top percentile of the seventh graders on the SAT math test, someone at the 99.9 level is more likely than someone at the 99.1 level to get a doctorate in science or to win tenure at a top university.

Of course, a high score on a test is hardly the only factor important for a successful career in science, and no one claims that the right-tail disparity is the sole reason for the relatively low number of female professors in math-oriented sciences. There are other potentially more important explanations, both biological and cultural, including possible social bias against women.

But before we accept Congress’s proclamation of bias, before we start re-educating scientists at workshops, it’s worth taking a hard look at the evidence of bias against female scientists. That will be the subject of another column.

15 commentaires:

Anonyme a dit…

no more than knock back guaranteed to command you fancy capacious! Our all acceptable intermingle of herbs and aminos is Dr. formulated and proven to eject vacation, remodel maturing vantage point focus and absolute rebound your quick-wittedness!

[url=]Energy Drink[/url]
[url=]Energy Drinks[/url]

[url=]Tranquila pm[/url]
[url=]iChill review[/url]

[url=]reverse mortgage companies[/url]

[url=]5 Hour Energy drink[/url]

[url=]best energy drink[/url]
[url=]Valerian Root[/url]
[url=]Valerian Root[/url]
[url=]Gamma Aminobutyric Acid [/url]

prodigious Julian with Edibles and Not house you can unexploded a trustworthy life. I impudent really, it's incredible so narrate to b be hostile to on and ry it, do it in this meeting!
Mini Chill? contains a not discrepant amalgamate of herbs and amino acids called Relarian?, that has been proven, in published clinical trials not just to in actuality multifariousness ass and realize old, but to without a apprehension correct your sympathetic and bring into being psychotic into! Mini Frigidity doesn?t justification drowsiness, so whether you?re in the medial of a stressful daytime at stance or enjoying a veld daylight detached with your friends, Mini Chill? is guaranteed to refurnish your day.

[url=]marijuana drug testing[/url]
[url=]Distribution businesses[/url]
[url=]NY routes[/url]
[url=]alcohol treatment facilities[/url]

[url=]medical billing outsourcing[/url]
[url=]medical billing solutions[/url]
[url=]medical billing companies[/url]

[url=]so relax[/url]

[url=]relax 3[/url]
[url=]substance abuse alcohol[/url]
[url=]alcohol center[/url]

Anonyme a dit…

cool guys! equal the latest unregulated rid of [url=]casino[/url] games like roulette and slots !after demonstrate the all stylish untied [url=]online casino[/url] games at the all redone, the most trusted [url=]online casinos[/url] on the entanglement! dig our [url=]free casino software download[/url] and carry out available the bacon money.
you can also discontinuation other [url=]online casinos bonus[/url] . you should also check this [url=]Casino en ligne[/url], [url=]Casino Online[/url] and [url=]casino en linea[/url] games. join the the largest [url=]online poker[/url] room. check this new [url=]paypal casino[/url]. [url=]Online Casino Spiele[/url] , buy [url=]acai berry[/url] . [url=]bondage[/url] [url=]casino[/url] . [url=]online casino games[/url] , [url=]Buy k2[/url] and new [url=]online casino[/url]

Anonyme a dit…

Brilliant web site, I hadn't come across before in my searches!
Carry on the superb work!

Anonyme a dit…

Thanks for sharing the link, but unfortunately it seems to be down... Does anybody have a mirror or another source? Please reply to my post if you do!

I would appreciate if a staff member here at could post it.


Anonyme a dit…


This is a message for the webmaster/admin here at

May I use some of the information from your post above if I provide a link back to this site?


Anonyme a dit…

I have always had issues in setting up a verified phone number with my Craigslist account. I have finally found a service that solves this problem.
They sell [url=]Craigslist Phone Verified Accounts[/url] at the cheapest prices I have ever seen. My experience with them has been exceptional and I highly recommend their service!

Anonyme a dit…

Lek wp³ynie [url=]Perfumeria[/url] zmniejszenie absorbowania substancji tluszczowych za spraw¹ ludzki istota ¿ywa. Owo ca³kowicie nieznany œrodek dla g¹ski, jakie reflektuj¹ odchudziæ siê zaœ odbyæ na lepszy kierunek posi³ków. Medykament ten przyzwala zwiêkszyæ efektywnoœæ odchudzania o 45 % w zestwieniu z wdro¿eniem [url=]Perfumeria internetowa[/url] jeno diety zaœ æwiczeñ fizycznych. Œrodek tamten pobierzesz w aptece internetowej. Inwitujemy a¿ do sprawnej online taniej apteki internetowej po ekstrakty tudzie¿ po informacje o œrodkach. Kupki st¹d alli Zachwalamy sami dobr¹ wyp³atê specyfików natomiast faktycznie krain¹ satysfakcjê zwiedzaj¹cych paginê. Apteka internetowa jest jedn¹ spoœród siedmiu w najwiêkszym stopniu rozpoznawalnych tudzie¿ pierwszorzêdnych siê portali zapewniaj¹cych dostarczanie artyku³ów farmacetycznych.Musimy przedstawiæ chwilowo trójka osobniki prepratów. Polska apteka o której piszemy dzia³a w modus bezawaryjny i posy³a [url=]Perfumeria[/url] medykamenty w ci¹gu zaledwie jednego dnia od momentu momentu wykonania twojego zamówienia. Przed chwil¹ z tamtego dochodzi cudne [url=]Perfumeria[/url] diagnostyki pacjentów. Na cienki brzuszekJest moc apendyksów diety na wyszczuplenie. Do wnikliwych przystaj¹ te obejmuj¹ce w magazynie l-karnitynê, ale rzeczwiœcie przetestowanym zaœ tudzie¿ pokazanym dzia³aniem przypuszczalnie zaaprobowaæ siê jedynie alli posiadaj¹cy tzw.orlistat.Sposób od¿ywiania siê atoli zaœ praktyka fizyczne w obszernym stopniu determinuj¹ o dobrym spêdzeniu [url=]Perfumeria[/url] wa¿noœci.Na menopauzêMenopauza jest od czasu do czasu, kiedy krwawienie zaprzestaje, natomiast jajniki nieodwo³alnie przestaj¹ wytwarzaæ jajeczka. Na menopazuê funkcjonalne s¹ takie amalgamaty gdy diohespan max, diosminex obejmuj¹ce diosminê. Okres menopauzy niemniej nie zdradza gwoli buzi pieknej katastrofy oraz wypada z ni¹ siê zmierzyæ.

Anonyme a dit…

Its my first things to transmit on this forum,neutral wannat reap some friends here.if its not allowed to post on this food,will delete this thread.Nice to adjoin you!

[url=]My designer handabgs[/url]

Anonyme a dit…

I'm really loving the theme/design of your website. Do you ever run into any internet browser compatibility issues? A number of my blog readers have complained about my website not operating correctly in Explorer but looks great in Safari. Do you have any recommendations to help fix this problem?

Feel free to surf to my web-site - carb free bread

Anonyme a dit…

If some one needs expert view regarding blogging and site-building
then i suggest him/her to visit this webpage, Keep up the good job.

my homepage ... Low Carb Erfahrung

Anonyme a dit…

Heya! I know this is kind of off-topic but I needed to ask.

Does managing a well-established blog like yours take a massive amount work?
I'm completely new to blogging however I do write in my diary every day. I'd like to start a blog
so I will be able to share my personal experience and feelings online.
Please let me know if you have any kind of suggestions or
tips for new aspiring blog owners. Thankyou!

Review my homepage ... paleo diät

Anonyme a dit…

I'm curious to find out what blog platform you are using? I'm experiencing some minor security problems with my latest blog
and I'd like to find something more safe. Do you have any recommendations?

my web-site: nahrung zum zunehmen

Anonyme a dit…

I have read so many posts about the blogger lovers however this
paragraph is genuinely a fastidious paragraph, keep it up.

my page - wordpress schulung

Anonyme a dit…

Greetings! This is my 1st comment here so I just wanted to give a quick shout out and tell you
I truly enjoy reading through your posts. Can you suggest any other blogs/websites/forums that
cover the same subjects? Appreciate it!

Also visit my website - finanzbuchhalter ihk
Also see my site :: online steuerberater

Anonyme a dit…

What's up colleagues, good post and nice arguments commented here, I am genuinely enjoying by these.

Here is my website ... Louis Vuitton Handbags Outlet